Our biomolecule copier allows us to combine the fast and efficient generation of microarrays with a high throughput screening method. Analogous to a normal copier, BioCopy can transfer the genetic information of a DNA microarray original reproducibly to a DNA, RNA or protein copy. The copied microarrays consist of thousands of copied spots with each spot consisting of millions of identical molecules. These can then be examined using many common screening methods, including our label-free detection system (SCORE).
A standart glass slide modified with a DNA capturing surface and a cavity chip are the only components needed to produce a DNA copy. The cavities on the surface of the chip serve as individual reaction chambers during the copying process. A DNA pool is distributed into the cavities in a digital manner (either one or no DNA strand) together with spPCR reaction mix. Afterwards the cavity chip is sealed with the glass slide and a PCR is performed simultaneously in all cavities using a specially developed device. The resulting DNA microarrays now allow the analysis of thousands of DNA spots simultaneously, for example with with our SCORE technology. In addition, DNA copying technology can be used to produce not only DNA microarrays, but also DNA cavity chips that serve as templates for RNA and protein copying.
To produce an RNA microarray copy we need a DNA cavity chip produced by DNA copy as a template and a slide coated with an RNA capture surface. Each cavity of the DNA chip contains a different monoclonal DNA species, which serves as a template for the subsequent RNA copy. An in vitro transcription mix is distributed into the wells and these are then sealed with the coated slide. In the course of in vitro transcription, the synthesized RNA is captured on the binding surface, creating an RNA array. The resulting RNA microarrays now allow the analysis of thousands of RNA spots simultaneously, e.g. by using our SCORE technology.
Analogous to the RNA copy, the production of a protein microarray copy also requires a DNA cavity chip produced by DNA copy as a template and a glass slide coated with a protein-capturing surface. Each cavity of the DNA chip contains a different monoclonal DNA species, which serves as a template for the subsequent protein copy. In addition, the DNA species contain all necessary sequences for the subsequent protein expression. A cell-free protein expression mixture is distributed into the cavities which are then sealed with the coated slide. The proteins produced during protein expression bind to the specially designed surface. Several surface coatings are available for this purpose, including the HaloBind surface produced by BioCopy. The resulting protein microarrays now allow the analysis of thousands of protein spots simultaneously, e.g. by using our SCORE technology.
Binding Kinetic Measurement
The SCORE technology (Single Colour Reflectometry) allows the analysis of thousands of biomolecular interactions simultaneously, label-free and in real time. Thus kinetic parameters (e.g. KD, kon and koff values) can be determined for each spot of a microarray with a minute amount of target molecules.
Biomolecular interactions are defined by the binding of one molecule to another. Our SCORE system is able to detect these interactions by measuring the optical thickness on the array surface. This is basically the same effect as with a soap bubble: a change in wall thickness leads to a change in colour. The SCORE system translates this colour change into a binding signal that can be directly visualised as a binding curve, image or movie.